The Transformative Power of Generative AI in Surgical Procedures

Authors: Amina Khalpey PhD, Ujjawal Kumar BA, Zain Khalpey MD PhD FACS

The world of surgery is currently undergoing a seismic shift, steered by the ground-breaking innovations, such as the field of generative artificial intelligence (AI). The once-fictional notion of AI cohabiting the surgical sphere, optimizing every facet of surgery from planning to recovery, has progressed from a pipe dream to a palpable reality.

In this blog, we will outline the salient ways generative AI is reshaping the surgical landscape and underscore its profound implications for patient care.

Roles for Generative AI in surgery

1. Surgical Training in Virtual Reality (VR): Generative AI crafts realistic surgical simulations, letting surgeons hone intricate procedures in virtual sanctuaries without patient risk. Such training magnifies precision and curtails real-world complications. (1)

2. AI as the Surgical Mentor: By digesting data from myriad surgeries, AI can recognize trends and provide instantaneous, tailored feedback, augmenting the surgeon’s proficiency and diminishing complications. (2)

3. Personalized 3D Patient Models: Generative AI crafts meticulous 3D replicas of patient anatomy from medical scans, paving the way for surgical plans of unparalleled precision, thereby amplifying patient safety and outcomes.

4. The Infallible Robotic Aide: AI-empowered surgical robots, already a reality, assist in tasks like suturing. Their precision, amplified by generative AI, promises enhanced surgical results. (3)

5. Holographic Surgical Visualization: Transforming medical imaging into interactive holograms, generative AI gifts surgeons with a comprehensive, real-time 3D view, enabling nuanced navigation of intricate anatomical landscapes, thus reducing surgical complications.

6. Postoperative Care Revolution: Beyond the surgical process, generative AI crafts personalized rehabilitation blueprints, minimizing recovery durations and associated risks.(4)

Current implementation of generative AI in surgery

The burgeoning realm of generative AI is not only confined to theoretical applications. Over 55 pioneering startups are sculpting the future of surgical procedures from VR training platforms like Osso VR and Proprio, 3D patient modeling ventures like Carlsmed and Rejoint, to robotic aids like Intuitive Surgical and Medtronic.

However, this revolution is in its nascent stages. Many of these enterprises, while leveraging AI, might not explicitly harness the full might of generative AI. Yet, their endeavors attest to the vast potential of AI in surgical innovation.


In closing, as we stand at the cusp of this AI-driven surgical renaissance, we must recognize the unparalleled potential of generative AI. Seamlessly integrating with surgical procedures promises enhanced efficiency and, more importantly, augmented patient outcomes.

The surgical domain is poised for an irreversible transformation, and we must both anticipate and advocate for this evolution for the betterment of healthcare.




1. Park JJ, Tiefenbach J, Demetriades AK. The role of artificial intelligence in surgical simulation. Front Med Technol. 2022 Dec 14;4:1076755. doi: 10.3389/fmedt.2022.1076755. PMID: 36590155; PMCID: PMC9794840.

2. Gupta A, Singla T, Chennatt JJ, David LE, Ahmed SS, Rajput D. Artificial intelligence: A new tool in surgeon's hand. J Educ Health Promot. 2022 Mar 23;11:93. doi: 10.4103/jehp.jehp_625_21. PMID: 35573620; PMCID: PMC9093628.

3. Loftus TJ, Altieri MS, Balch JA, Abbott KL, Choi J, Marwaha JS, Hashimoto DA, Brat GA, Raftopoulos Y, Evans HL, Jackson GP, Walsh DS, Tignanelli CJ. Artificial Intelligence-enabled Decision Support in Surgery: State-of-the-art and Future Directions. Ann Surg. 2023 Jul 1;278(1):51-58. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000005853. Epub 2023 Mar 21. PMID: 36942574.

4. Bohr A, Memarzadeh K. The rise of artificial intelligence in healthcare applications. Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare. 2020:25–60. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-818438-7.00002-2. Epub 2020 Jun 26. PMCID: PMC7325854.

5. Osso VR. “Virtual reality surgical training.”,

6. Proprio. “Surgical navigation reinvented.”,

7. Carlsmed. “Personalized spinal implants through AI.”,

8. Rejoint. “3D-printed personalized knee replacements.”,

9. Intuitive Surgical. “The da Vinci surgical system.”, us/products-and-services/da-vinci.

10. Medtronic. “AI and machine learning.”, en/innovation/artificial-intelligence.html